Pagan (Bagan) Dynasty

   (1044-ca. 1325)
   Pagan (Bagan) was a small Burman city-state established on the banks of the Irrawaddy (Ayeyarwady) River in what is now Mandalay Division in the ninth century CE. After King Anawrahta (r. 1044-1077) became its ruler, he unified Upper and Lower Burma, establishing what is sometimes called the "First Burmese (Myanmar) Empire." Pagan was one of the post powerful states in Mainland Southeast Asia until its invasion by the armies of the Mongol emperor, Khubilai Khan, in the late 13th century. Best known for its thousands of pagodas and temples (pahto), it set the pattern for subsequent Burman and Burmese states, especially its official sponsorship of Theravada Buddhism and the Sangha. Its end is obscure: The last Pagan monarchs, Sawnit (r. 1298-1325) and Uzana (1325), were apparently powerless puppets, and with their passing the Burman capital was established principally at Sagaing (1315-1364) and Ava (Inwa) (1364-1555).
   Monarchs of the Pagan Dynasty Year of Accession
   • Anawrahta 1044
   • Sawlu 1077
   • Kyanzittha 1084
   • Alaungsithu 1112
   • Narathu 1167
   • Naratheinhka 1170
   • Narapatisithu 1173
   • Nantaungmya 1210
   • Kyaswa 1234
   • Uzana 1250
   • Narathihapate 1254
   • Kyawswa 1287
   • Sawhnit 1298
   • Uzana 1325
   ◘ Source: D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-East Asia. London: Macmillan, 1964.
   Because the near-desert region in which Pagan is located had little agricultural potential, the dynasty was economically dependent on a complex of irrigated rice fields, especially at Kyaukse.

Historical Dictionary of Burma (Myanmar). . 2014.

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